Watertech is a collective name for technologies that find solutions for water supply and demand issues. BlueGreen Water Technologies is a leading global Watertech company with a proprietary, standalone water technology that combines big data, deep learning and AI capabilities for treatment of water problems in lakes and oceans worldwide.

Lakeguard Blue

Lake Guard® Blue is a smart-floating technology composed of 95% (w/w) copper sulfate pentahydrate encapsulated in an inert, biodegradable agent, approved by the U.S. EPA and certified by the NSF/ANSI-60 standard for treatment in drinking water.

Lakeguard Oxy

Lake Guard® Oxy is a smart-floating technology, time-releasing formulation of 86% (w/w) sodium percarbonate that releases hydrogen peroxide as its active ingredient, approved by the U.S. EPA and certified by the NSF/ANSI-60 standard for treatment in drinking water.

Lakeguard Dew

Lake Guard®️ Dew is a floating, slow-releasing formulation of aluminum sulphate, currently under development, designed to replace existing burdensome and expensive aluminium treatment methods with cost-effective ones.

Lakeguard View

Lake Guard® ️View is a cutting-edge data science analytics that enables us to detect, analyze and predict water quality issues in unlimited scales, anywhere, anytime by using a combination of Harmful Algal Blooms analysis, Red Tides Alert system, Inferring Drone & Satellites Images and AI.


Lake Guard® is an affordable, highly effective and environmentally friendly treatment that shows immediate results within 24 to 48 hours. It consists of floating, slow-releasing formulations of market-approved algaecides designed to prevent the intensification of cyanobacterial toxic blooms in freshwater bodies (aka “blue-green algae”).


Cyanobacteria, aka blue-green algae, are photosynthetic microorganisms found naturally in waterbodies. In warm, nutrient-rich environments, cyanobacteria can multiply quickly, creating blooms, mostly in the summer and early fall. Cyanobacterial blooms can look like foam, scum, or mats. Harmful cyanobacterial blooms may affect people, animals, or the environment by blocking the sunlight and producing toxins called cyanotoxins, which are extremely powerful natural poisons. BlueGreen’s Lake Guard®  products can eradicate these severely harmful blooms and make water safe again for drinking and recreational activities.

Red tides

Red tides refer to the phenomenon of harmful algal blooms on the ocean coastline that cause the water to change color. Red tides can be hazardous to the environment and human and animal health. They have become more frequent due to human activities that cause runoff of water filled with chemicals released from farming, factories, sewage treatment plants, and other sources into the ocean. During a red tide, fish and other organisms are found dead on the beaches from ingesting toxins or not getting enough oxygen.

Toxic algal bloom

Same as HAB. No specific definition.

Harmful algal bloom (HAB)

HABs occur when sea and freshwater algae grow out of control, producing toxic or harmful effects on people, marine life, and birds. The various types of HABs are determined by the diverse algal groups, which form different toxins. HAB occurrence may be on the rise due to human-related activities.

Water security

Water security is defined by the United Nations as “the capacity of a population to safeguard sustainable access to adequate quantities of acceptable quality water for sustaining livelihoods, human well-being, and socio-economic development, for ensuring protection against water-borne pollution and water-related disasters, and for preserving ecosystems in a climate of peace and political stability.” To achieve water security, water-related hazards must be mitigated, and access to water services and resources must be protected.

Detection methods LC/MS

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is one of the most reliable modern analytical methods for detecting and identifying the components of a complex mixture. It involves the physical separation of target compounds followed by mass-based detection.

Blue-green algae

Blue-green algae, also called cyanobacteria, are photosynthetic bacteria that mostly inhabit fresh and marine water. They can multiply and form blooms that look like blue-green or greenish-brown scum on the water’s surface and often emit a foul smell. Some blue-green algae produce toxins that may be released into the water and can cause animal deaths in extreme cases and severe illnesses in humans.

Water treatment

Water treatment is a process intended to improve water quality and make it appropriate for a specific purpose: drinking, irrigation, recreational activity, safe release into the environment, etc. The types of treatment depend on the specific end-use and include screening, filtration, membrane processes, and disinfection using UV radiation, to name a few. BlueGreen Water Technologies offers a variety of products that treat HAB-infested waters and make them safe for drinking and recreational activities.


A coagulant is a chemical substance that causes coagulation, a process that involves the neutralization of charge. In water treatment, coagulation-flocculation is a process that uses compounds that cause clumping of fine particles into larger ones, rendering them easier to detach from the water. Therefore, this process can be used as a preliminary or intermediary step in water treatment processes.


A flocculant is a substance that can be added to a suspension to accelerate or strengthen the process of flocculation. Flocculation is a physical process that causes colloidal particles to separate from a suspension by sedimenting as flocs or flakes. Unlike coagulation, it does not involve neutralization of charge.


An algicide is a chemical substance intended to mitigate and control harmful algae. Algicides are often used to destroy HABs. However, they may be dangerous in large quantities, which are often required for efficient results. BlueGreen Water Technologies develops safe, effective, and environmentally friendly algicides for HAB mitigation and restoration of natural ecosystems.


A biocide is a chemical or biological agent used to mitigate the spread of harmful organisms. It can be intended to eliminate, prevent, and control the proliferation of any harmful organism, be it an animal, a plant, or a microorganism.


Photosynthesis is the process by which light energy is transformed into chemical energy, and water, carbon dioxide, and minerals turn into oxygen and organic compounds. Plants and certain microorganisms, including algae and cyanobacteria, can perform photosynthesis. They are collectively known as photoautotrophs or primary producers and constitute the base of the food chain.

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an essential trace gas in Earth’s atmosphere, formed by the combustion of carbon-containing materials, fermentation, and animal and plant respiration. It is a principal greenhouse gas, capturing some of the radiative energy received from the sun and subsequently emitted from Earth. CO2 is utilized by plants and other primary producers for photosynthesis, where it is converted into carbohydrates.

Oxidative stress

Oxidative stress (OS) occurs during excess ROS (reactive oxygen species) production due to an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants. It can result in damage to the organism’s cells and cellular components, proteins, lipids, and DNA, contributing to the aging process.

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)

Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound used as an oxidizer, bleaching agent, and antiseptic for disinfecting waterbodies and the atmosphere. In addition, it is a reactive oxygen species and the simplest peroxide, found in various biological systems, including the human body. BlueGreen’s Lake Guard® Oxy releases hydrogen peroxide as its active ingredient to induce oxidative stress in harmful cyanobacterial blooms, causing their collapse and demise.


An aerosol is defined as a suspension of fine solid and/or liquid particles suspended in the air. Aerosols can be natural, such as sea salt particles, dust, pollen, and many others, or man-made, like ammonium sulfate particles and soot from anthropogenic emissions. Aerosols are categorized into primary particles emitted directly into the atmosphere and secondary aerosols formed in the air from precursor gases. Aerosol particles are responsible for cloud formation by acting as condensation nuclei around which cloud droplets materialize and are key players of the climate system.


Chlorophyll is the green pigment found in cyanobacteria, algae, and plants. Chlorophyll plays a key role in photosynthesis by absorbing sunlight and transferring its energy to perform biosynthesis, producing organic compounds that sustain the organism and emit oxygen as a byproduct. This process sustains not only the primary producer’s life but also produces oxygen for the entire planet.


Phycocyanin is a light-harvesting pigment-binding protein found in microalgae and is an accessory pigment to chlorophyll. It is a non-toxic, water-soluble compound, exhibiting antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and many other positive health effects. It is classified by color into blue phycocyanin, comprised of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) and allophycocyanin (A-PC), and red phycoerythrin.

Dissolved oxygen (DO)

Dissolved oxygen (DO) is the oxygen concentration present in a waterbody originating from the atmosphere and aquatic plants. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is an indicator of the amount of oxygen available to the inhabitants of the aquatic ecosystem and is a measure of water quality, hygiene, and ecosystem health.


pH is a measure of water acidity or basicity, ranging from 0 – 14; values less than 7 indicate acidity, above 7 are a base, and 7 is neutral (pure water). pH is measured as the relative free hydrogen and hydroxyl ions’ quantity in the water, which ordinarily ranges between ~ 1 and 10−14 gram-equivalents per liter, corresponding to the values between 0 and 14.


Polysaccharides, the most abundant carbohydrates found in food, are used for storing energy in organisms. Polysaccharides are composed of monosaccharide chains attached by glycosidic bonds. Three of the most abundant ones, namely, starch, glycogen, and cellulose, are composed of glucose chains. Starch and glycogen serve as short-term energy storage in plants and animals, respectively.

Algal bloom

An algal bloom refers to the rapid growth of the algae population in an aquatic system, often manifested as water discoloration from the algal pigments. Algal blooms are usually caused by eutrophication, i.e., an excess of nutrients entering the water body. Algal blooms can have various effects on the aquatic ecosystem, ranging from serving as food for higher trophic levels to harmful effects like blocking the sunlight due to high density in the upper water layer or secreting toxins into the water.

Gas bubbles

Gas bubbles can occur in the water due to the concentration of the dissolved gas exceeding the limit of its water solubility. The gas molecules consequently aggregate, forming bubbles that grow through coagulation and coalescence processes.

Bacterial colony

A bacterial colony is defined as a visible mass of bacteria that originate from a single mother cell, therefore containing a clone of genetically identical bacteria.

Anaerobic respiration

Anaerobic respiration is performed using an electron acceptor other than molecular oxygen (O2). Anaerobic organisms use less oxidizing substances than oxygen, such as nitrate and sulfate, and therefore release less energy per oxidized molecule. For this reason, anaerobic respiration has lower efficiency compared to aerobic.

Aerobic respiration

Aerobic respiration releases chemical energy in the cell to power its activity. It is performed by a set of metabolic reactions that involve molecular oxygen, intended to convert the nutrients’ chemical energy into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release the waste products carbon dioxide and water. Respiration is a catabolic process, breaking large molecules into smaller ones releasing energy by replacing the weak high-energy bonds in molecular oxygen with stronger bonds in the products.


A pigment is an intensely colored inorganic compound insoluble in water (as opposed to a dye) used for coloring other materials. Due to their insolubility, pigments are used as a suspension of finely ground solid particles in a liquid.

Preventive treatment

As part of our services, BlueGreen Water Technologies provides a preventative treatment for inhibiting cyanobacterial proliferation when present in the water at low concentrations. The preventative treatment uses low dosages of the BlueGreen line of products to stop the cyanobacteria from reaching high concentrations, thus saving money and resources required to deal with the detrimental consequences of HABs to the ecosystem balance and use of the waterbody for drinking and recreational activities. Thus, the preventative treatment is a highly cost-effective solution for diminishing the costs of both HAB treatment and the associated damages to water usage and tourism.

Water body

A waterbody is any clearly defined collection of water, such as oceans, lakes, rivers, and streams.


A lake is any slowly moving or standing body of water that occupies an inland basin of a relatively large size. It is separate from any river or outlet that feeds or drains it and is also not part of the ocean.


A pond is a shallow and still freshwater body that can be either natural or artificial. The size and depth of ponds vary greatly with the season, as many ponds are produced by spring flooding from rivers.

Copper sulfate

Copper sulfate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CuSO4(H2O)x (5>x>0), used for eliminating bacteria, algae, plants, and various other organisms.

Granular copper sulfate

Copper sulfate is often used commercially in its granular form.

SPC (Sodium percarbonate)

Sodium percarbonate, also called solid hydrogen peroxide, is an adduct of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide with the chemical formula 2Na₂CO₃·3H₂O₂. It provides a stable source of alkaline hydrogen peroxide in a granular form, which can be used as a cleaning, disinfecting, or bleaching agent.

Aluminium sulfate

Aluminium sulfate is a salt with the chemical formula Al₂(SO₄)₃, mainly used as a coagulating agent for water treatment and purification.

PCD (programmed cell death)

Programmed cell death, or PCD, is a regulated biological process of cell suicide for selective removal of cells to preserve the integrity of multicellular organisms. Regulated programmed cell death has been discovered in unicellular organisms for preservation and protection of the cell population, triggered by extracellular signals.


Stratification is the separation of the water column into layers due to different densities based on differences in temperature or salinity. The stratified layers act as a barrier for water mixing, affecting light intensity, heat exchange, carbon, oxygen, and various nutrients.


A thermocline is a thin but distinct layer of warmer, mixed water, in which temperature changes more drastically with depth, dividing the upper mixed layer from the calm deep water below.

Absorption spectrum

The absorption spectrum of a material is the fraction of electromagnetic radiation absorbed by it over a range of wavelengths. The absorption spectrum depends on the atomic and molecular structure, composition, and interactions within the material.


Cyanotoxins are toxins excreted during cyanobacterial blooms in fresh or marine waterbodies. Intracellular cyanotoxins are produced and contained within the cells. Their release into the surrounding water occurs mainly during algal blooms when cell death and rupture (lysis) take place, but some cyanobacteria can also directly emit extracellular cyanotoxins into the water.


Microcystis is a genus of freshwater cyanobacteria that can produce toxins, such as microcystin and cyanopeptolin.

Phylogenetic tree

A phylogenetic tree is a branching diagram or tree depicting the lines of evolutionary descent of different species, organisms, or genes from a common ancestor. All life forms on Earth belong to a single phylogenetic tree, meaning they share a common ancestor.

Abundant cyanobacterial species

The most abundant cyanobacteria include Prochlorococcus, as the most abundant marine cyanobacteria; Synechococcus is also a marine species. Freshwater cyanobacteria include several species of Microcystis, Dolichospermum sp., Anabaena sp., and Aphanizomenon sp., among others.

Dolichospermum sp. 

Dolichospermum sp. is a nitrogen-fixing filamentous cyanobacterial species capable of producing toxins. It can form massive blooms in freshwater environments.

Planktothrix sp.

Planktothrix is a genus of cyanobacteria dominating a variety of freshwater ecosystems, capable of forming toxic blooms.

Anabaena sp.

Anabaena is a genus of nitrogen-fixing filamentous cyanobacteria found in shallow waters and moist soil. Anabaena may form blooms during the summer, producing neurotoxins that endanger local animals and human health.

Anabaenopsis sp. 

Anabaenopsis is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria capable of producing microcystins that are toxic to both humans and animals.

Aphanizomenon sp.

Aphanizomenon is a genus of cyanobacteria that inhabits freshwater lakes and can cause harmful blooms by producing various cyanotoxins.

Oscillatoria sp.

Oscillatoria is a genus of blue-green cyanobacteria whose filaments oscillate against each other within the colony. It is often found in freshwater environments, such as hot springs, and can produce toxins, including microcystins.

Lyngbya sp. 

Lyngbya is a genus of cyanobacteria that occurs in the ocean, salt marshes, and freshwater, and can form dense, floating mats. It may cause skin irritation through contact in humans and can be lethal for ingestion, usually through eating fish that contain it.


Microcystins are a large family of toxins produced by freshwater cyanobacteria, including Microcystis, Planktothrix, Anabaena, Oscillatoria, and Nostoc. The most common and most toxic form of microcystin is microcystin-LR. Cyanobacterial blooms containing microcystin are a global problem, risking freshwater safety for humans and animals.


Nodularins are powerful toxins produced by the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena that forms algal blooms in brackish waterbodies worldwide, most famously – the Baltic Sea, and in other coastal waters worldwide.


Cylindrospermopsin is a water-soluble cyanotoxin produced mainly in tropical and subtropical regions by various freshwater cyanobacteria, such as members of the Anabaena and Aphanizomenon genera.


Anatoxin-A is an acute cyanotoxin, also called the Very Fast Death Factor (VFDF), as it can be lethal within minutes to hours for several animals, especially cattle and dogs. It is found in a number of cyanobacteria, including Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Microcystis, Planktothrix, Oscillatoria, and Cylindrospermum.

Aerobic respiration

Aerobic respiration releases chemical energy in the cell to power its activity. It is performed by a set of metabolic reactions that involve molecular oxygen, intended to convert the nutrients’ chemical energy into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release the waste products carbon dioxide and water. Respiration is a catabolic process, breaking large molecules into smaller ones releasing energy by replacing the weak high-energy bonds in molecular oxygen with stronger bonds in the products.

Yngbyatoxin A

Lyngbyatoxin-a is a cyanotoxin produced by several cyanobacterial species and is a known carcinogen. Exposure in humans can lead to the common skin condition known as seaweed dermatitis and severe oral and gastrointestinal inflammation.


Saxitoxin is one of the most potent known natural toxins produced by both marine and freshwater cyanobacteria. Its ingestion by humans can occur through consumption of shellfish contaminated by saxitoxin-producing cyanobacteria and may cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Its presence in shellfish has severe economic repercussions, as it often leads to bans on shellfish harvesting in coastal waters worldwide.


Debromoaplysiatoxin is a cyanotoxin typically produced by Lyngbya majuscula, a marine cyanobacteria that occurs in long strands of up to 30 cm. It can cause seaweed dermatitis and is a potential carcinogen.

β-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA)

β-Methylamino-L-alanine is a neurotoxin produced by marine, freshwater, and terrestrial cyanobacteria.

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)

Lipopolysaccharides are the main component of the outer membrane of most gram-negative bacteria, composed of a lipid and a polysaccharide. They are essential for the morphology and functionality of the outer membrane and can also function as a virulence factor.


Geosmin is a natural sesquiterpene with a distinct earthy odor most people can easily smell, as the human nose can detect it at airborne concentrations as low as 5 ppt. It is the major volatile component of beet essence, fish, beans, and a component of the strong scent in the air when rain falls after dry weather.

2-Methylisoborneol (MIB)

2-Methylisoborneol is an irregular monoterpene that, together with geosmin, composes most of the taste and odor outbreaks in drinking water that have a biological origin.

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)

Reactive oxygen species are highly reactive molecules and free radicals derived from molecular oxygen, produced as byproducts of aerobic metabolism in the cell. Examples of ROS include peroxides, superoxide, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and alpha-oxygen. Excess ROS leads to toxic effects and molecular damage, also known as oxidative distress.


Wavelength is the distance between points that have completed identical parts of their periodic motion propagated in space. In other words, it is the distance between consecutive corresponding points of the same phase on the wave.

Carbon fixation

Carbon fixation is the process by which inorganic carbon is converted to organic compounds by living organisms. CO2 fixation via photosynthesis is a form of atmospheric carbon fixation and conversion into carbohydrates.

Quorum sensing

Quorum sensing (QS) is a detection and response mechanism to fluctuations in cell population density via chemical signaling by gene regulation, meaning that certain genes are expressed only in high cell densities. In bacteria, quorum sensing allows specific processes, such as virulence factor expression and biofilm formation, to be controlled according to the bacterial density.

Remote sensing

Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about the physical characteristics of an object or phenomenon, typically Earth and other planets, by measuring its reflected and emitted radiation without making physical contact with the object.

Artificial intelligence (AI)

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science related to developing computers or computer-controlled machines to perform tasks that require human intelligence.

Data acquisition

Data acquisition is the sampling of analog signals that measure physical properties and their conversion into digital numeric values that can be analyzed by a computer.

Primary metabolites

A primary metabolite is directly involved in physiological functions, such as growth, development, and reproduction. Examples of primary metabolites include lipids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids.

Secondary metabolites

Secondary metabolites are natural low molecular weight products with various chemical structures and biological activities produced by bacteria, fungi, or plants. They are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of organisms, also named secondary products or toxins.

Water remediation

Aerobic respiration releases chemical energy in the cell to power its activity. It is performed by a set of metabolic reactions that involve molecular oxygen, intended to convert the nutrients’ chemical energy into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release the waste products carbon dioxide and water. Respiration is a catabolic process, breaking large molecules into smaller ones releasing energy by replacing the weak high-energy bonds in molecular oxygen with stronger bonds in the products.

CO2 capture systems

Carbon capture is the process of capturing carbon dioxide (CO₂) formed during power generation and industrial processes before it enters the atmosphere, and transporting and storing it in an underground geological formation.

Sea temperature reduction

Sea temperature reduction is required to mitigate the risks associated with warmer water. In order to reduce sea temperature, several actions can be taken, among which are limiting greenhouse gas emissions and taking steps to protect and restore marine and coastal ecosystems.

Hurricane prediction and prevention 

The last few decades are characterized by a probable increasing trend in hurricane frequency and intensity. The increased risk associated with this trend has a substantial impact on the economic development and the lives in coastal locations worldwide.


A probe is a small device used in scientific research for measuring an experimental component by being placed inside it.

Aquatic ecosystem

An aquatic ecosystem includes communities of organisms within a waterbody and its surroundings. Every waterbody is a unique ecosystem that constantly changes over time (day/season).

Data analysis

Data analysis is defined as a process of examining, cleansing, transforming, and modeling data to extract useful information for decision-making.


Endosymbiosis is a symbiotic relationship between two organisms, where one organism lives inside the other. The endosymbiotic theory refers to the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms, stating that internalization of prokaryotes by an ancestral eukaryotic cell led to the formation of organelles like mitochondria and chloroplasts.


A filament is a threadlike elongated object, such as a thin, elongated cell. It may also refer to a long chain of subunits, including proteins, a series of cells attached one to another that can occur in algae, fungi, or bacteria.

Gram-negative bacteria

Gram-negative bacteria do not retain the crystal violet stain in a chemical process called gram staining used for differentiating bacteria according to their cell wall structure; these bacteria stain red, while gram-positive bacteria stain blue. Gram-negative bacteria are associated with some severe bacterial infections since they are enclosed in a capsule that protects them from white blood cells and certain antibiotics. In addition, they can release endotoxins that enhance the severity of the damage they cause during infection.

Gram-positive bacteria

Gram-positive bacteria are bacteria with thick peptidoglycan cell walls. Therefore, they retain the crystal violet dye used in the gram stain test, yielding a positive result. This test classifies bacteria into two structure-based categories, i.e., Gram-negative and Gram-positive. Six Gram-positive bacterial genera are pathogenic to humans.


Fluorescence is the reemission of electromagnetic radiation by a substance that has absorbed radiation, causing excitation of atoms within the material. The excitation leads to an almost immediate response in the form of light emission, mostly with lower energy than that of the absorbed radiation.


Symbiosis is a long-term biological relationship between two different species, including mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism.


A prokaryote is a single-celled organism with no internal membranes, lacking a distinct nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. Prokaryotic organisms comprise bacteria, including cyanobacteria.


Eukaryotes are organisms with a distinctly defined nucleus because they have a membrane that surrounds the nucleus as well as other organelles. The domain Eukaryota is one of the three domains of life, with bacteria and archaea comprising the other two.

Growth curve

A growth curve is a graphical representation of change in a certain phenomenon at different time points. For example, a growth curve may present the change in the number of cells or organisms in a culture over time.

Growth curve phases

Growth curves are divided into four phases, namely: lag, exponential (log), stationary, and death.

Water sacristy

Water scarcity is the scarcity in availability or access to a regular supply of fresh and safe water. There are two types of water scarcity: physical scarcity or the lack of sufficient water to meet all demands, and economical water scarcity.


Nutrients are substances obtained from the environment that are required for an organism to perform its basic functions, including energy production, construction, and regulation. The nutrients required for aquatic microorganisms, nitrogen and phosphorus, exist in every waterbody. They are at the base of the food chain and support a healthy, biodiverse aquatic system. Biodiversity is what ‘immunes’ a lake from being overrun by any single species.

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